ÿþFurthermore, we found most GBM ï»¿puma creepers cell lines analyzed to express high levels of anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family of proteins, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not Mcl-1 ( Fig. 6c ). Rationalized by this observation and the data shown in Fig. 6b indicating that Iressa treatment did not significantly affect the interaction between EGFR/EGFRvIII and PUMA, we hypothesize that EGFR/EGFRvIII-mediated antagonism of PUMA-mediated intrinsic apoptosis contributes to .
Forty eight hrs later, cell survival rates were determined and combination index (CI) computed using Median-effect analysis, as we previously described [ 9 ; 34 ]. Treatment synergy is indicated by CI values less than 1.0; additive effect, CI=1.0; antagonistic effect, CI>1.0. As puma rihanna shown in Fig. 6d , the combination of the EGFR inhibitor (Iressa) with the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor (2-MA A3) resulted in synergistic cell kill in both U87MG-EGFR and U87MG-EGFRvIII cell lines.
To gain insight into this paradox, puma fenty we investigated EGFR and EGFRvIII, frequently over-expressed in GBM similar to PUMA, and found both pathways to be inversely linked to the apoptotic response of GBM cells. These results allow the speculation that a subset of GBMs (34%) is capable of up-regulating EGFR/EGFRvIII expression in order to negatively regulate PUMA and thereby, escape therapy-induced apoptosis. Our results, however.
Also indicate that PUMA can be negatively regulated by EGFR/EGFRvIII-independent mechanisms, given the fact ( Fig. puma slides 2a ) that a portion of PUMA-expressing GBMs do not express EGFR/EGFRvIII. Future investigation is thus needed to identify these mechanisms in order to augment the apoptotic effects of anti-GBM therapy.The functional interaction between EGFR/EGFRvIII and PUMA potentially represents a new class of protein-protein interaction that involves a receptor tyrosine kinase and a proapoptotic protein.
Timed location data from a network of 119 trap stations in the Cockscomb Basin of Belize provide the 1st evidence of interspecific avoidance calibrated against intraspecific interactions among jaguars. Camera trapping has advantages over radiotelemetry in its potential to provide data on the complete array of individuals within the study area. The 23 individually identified male jaguars showed high levels of overlap in puma fenty slides ranges, with up to 5 different males captured at the same location in the same month.
El uso de cámaras-trampa tiene ventajas sobre a radio-telemetría para proveer de datos de un conjunto de individuos de una área de estudio. Los 23 jaguares identificados individualmente mostraron un alto grado de sobreposición de sus áreas de actividad, con hasta 5 individuos fotografiados en el mismo sitio en un mes. Registramos baja consistencia en las áreas de actividad ("home ranges") en períodos de 3 meses a dos años, con bajos niveles de separación espacial entre individuos pero con un alto flujo de individuos.